Adverb clauses of concession are introduced by subordinating conjunctions although, though, even though, even if, while and whereas.
Though and although
Both these words can be used as conjunctions with the same meaning. Though is more common.
Though and although mean ‘in spite of the fact that’, ‘even if’ and similar ideas.
- Though he is poor, he is always neatly dressed.
- Though you hate me, I will always serve you faithfully.
- I would like to go out although it is raining.
Even if and even though
Even is not used as a conjunction, but we can use even if and even though to connect two clauses.
- I will go even if you forbid me to.
- I enjoyed the film even though I had a headache.
- The men managed to survive even though they had nothing to eat or drink.
- Even if I fail, I will try again and again until I succeed.
While and whereas
While can mean although.
- While I admire your courage, I think you ought not to go on this dangerous journey.
- While it is true that I have some lands and houses, I do not have liquid cash to invest in industry.
- Whereas John had more enemies than friends, his brother was extremely popular.
In a special structure, as is sometimes used instead of though.
- Young as he is, he occupies a responsible position in the firm. (= Though he is young, he occupies a responsible position in the firm.)