The participle has the following uses:
1. To form the continuous and perfect tenses.
Here is a quick review of the tenses that use the present and past participles.
- I am writing. (Present continuous)
- I was writing. (Past continuous)
- I will be writing. (Future continuous)
- I have written. (Present perfect)
- I had written. (Past perfect)
- I will have written. (Future perfect)
2. As an adjective
The participle can serve all the functions of the plain adjective.
- Barking dogs seldom bite.
- A rolling stone gathers no moss.
- Don’t cry over spilt milk.
In the following examples, the participles are used as part of the predicate.
- The story was interesting.
- He was left stranded.
In apposition to a noun
The participle can be used in apposition to a noun.
- The woman, quivering and trembling, ran away.
As an object complement
A participle can be used as an object complement.
- I found him somewhat recovered.
- She found the story quite interesting.
Here the participles recovered and interesting are the complements of the objects – him and study.
The participle can be used as a noun by placing the definite article before it.
- The injured were taken to the hospital.
- The dead leave their blessing upon the living.
As an adverb
The participle may be used as an adverb modifying an adjective.
- It is piping hot.
- He was dead drunk.