Many students find it difficult to use the present perfect tense correctly, but that is not surprising. Although the present perfect tense is a present tense, it is only used to talk about finished actions and situations.
We make the present perfect tense form by putting has/have before the past participle form of the verb.
I have finished the job.
She has acted in a film.
They have left for their native place.
She has agreed to come.
The present perfect tense is used:
1) To talk about an action that was finished just now or in the immediate past.
They have just arrived.
I have finished writing.
2. To talk about a past action that has its effect in the present.
Somebody has let the cat in. (= The cat is in now. The action took place in the past, but its effect is still present.)
I have broken my leg, so I can’t walk now.
3. To talk about an action that began sometime in the past and has continued up to the present.
We have lived in this city for ten years. (We still live here.)
I have known him for a long time. (I still know him.)
4. To talk about a past action
We can use the present perfect tense to talk about a past action when we don’t mention when it took place.
He has helped me several times.
I have been to Australia.
The present perfect tense cannot be used with adverbs of past time like yesterday, last year, last week, when, then etc.
He went to Mumbai yesterday. (BUT NOT He has gone to Mumbai yesterday.)