The label dialect refers to any distinctive speech variety associated with the people of a particular region (regional dialect) or a social group (social dialect). English has a number of regional dialects. The English spoken in London, for example, is somewhat different from the English spoken in New York or Chicago.
There are also plenty of social dialects. A taxi driver, for example, does not speak like a school teacher. Even standard English is merely a dialect of English, but it does enjoy a very special status.
A direct question is a sentence which has the form of a question expecting an answer.
What are you doing?
What is the capital of South Africa?
Are you going to Susie’s birthday party?
A discourse marker is a word or a phrase which serves chiefly to keep a conversation flowing smoothly. Examples are: yes, so, of course, nevertheless, well etc. A discourse marker is only weakly linked to an adjoining sentence. Sometimes it is not linked at all.
Any grammatical construction in which two or more negative words appear in a single clause. Double negatives are common in most vernacular forms of English, but it is considered inappropriate in standard English.
Note that a double negative is not equivalent to a positive. For example, the sentence ‘I didn’t say nothing’ does not mean that ‘I said something’. It merely happens to be a non-standard, yet familiar and understandable way of saying ‘I didn’t say anything’.