A relative clause is a type of subordinate clause introduced by a relative pronoun.
- What is the name of that boy who just walked in?
Here the clause ‘who just walked in’ is an example of a relative clause. It modifies the noun boy. Relative clauses are also called adjective clauses.
Relative clauses are sometimes shortened.
How to reduce a relative clause?
A participle can often be used instead of a relative pronoun and full verb.
Read the sentence given below.
The girl who sits next to Peter is my neighbor’s daughter.
Now when we shorten the relative clause ‘who sits next to Peter’, we get:
The girl sitting next to Peter is my neighbor’s daughter.
Another example is given below.
Who is the girl who is sitting next to your brother?
Now when we reduce the relative clause, we get:
Who is the girl sitting next to your brother?
More examples are given below.
A girl who works at a pub has won a lottery.
A girl working at a pub has won a lottery.
The lady who lives next door throws numerous parties.
The lady living next door throws numerous parties.
Yesterday I read a book which was written by Hemingway.
Yesterday I read a book written by Hemingway.
Most people who were invited to the party didn’t turn up.
Most people invited to the party didn’t turn up.
Anyone who enters the garden without permission will be punished.
Anyone entering the garden without permission will be punished.
Reduced structures can also be used with the adjectives available and possible.
Please book all the tickets available. (= Please book all the tickets that are available.)