We use a number of expressions to show that what is said follows logically from what was said before.
Therefore, as a result, so, then, consequently
- She was therefore unable to find a solution.
- So she had to quit her job.
- I think; therefore I am.
- ‘We have missed the train.’ ‘Then we are going to have to hire a taxi.’
- They grew up in Japan; hence their interest in Zen Buddhism.
- He sustained severe injuries and, consequently, spent the rest of his life in a wheel chair.
Therefore is common in mathematical proofs.
Hence and thus
Hence and thus have the same basic meaning and are often interchangeable. However, there is a slight difference. Hence usually refers to the future. Thus usually refers to the past. It is often used to indicate a conclusion.
- Both sides played well, thus no winner was declared.
- The situation is getting more and more complicated. Hence we will have to proceed with caution. (NOT Thus we will have to proceed with caution.)
So and then
There is a difference between then and so. Then is used when one speaker replies to another. So can be used in both ways.
- ‘The last bus has gone.’ ‘So/ then we will have to walk.’ (Two speakers)
- ‘The last bus has gone, so we will have to walk. (NOT ‘The last bus has gone, then we will have to walk’) (Same speaker)