The present perfect tense represents an action which has been completed within a period of time that extends up to and includes the present.
When the verb is transitive
|Subject + present perfect||Object||Adverbials, complements|
|Have you seen||him||this morning?|
|Have you seen||him||today?|
|I have seen||him||before.|
|He has not returned||the money||I lent him.|
|I have just read||a book||on the philosophy of Lord Buddha.|
When the verb is intransitive
|Subject + present perfect||Adverbials, complements etc.|
|We have lived||here since 2002.|
|I have worked||here for twenty years.|
|She has grown||enormously in the last two years.|
|The baby has slept||for two hours now.|
|A telegram has just come||from my uncle.|
|Has the postman been||already?|
|I have been||there this morning.|
The present perfect tense cannot be used with definite points of time in the past. It cannot, for example, be used with adverbs like yesterday, last week or last year. However, periods of time extending up to the time of speaking may be mentioned.
Examples are: for three hours, since morning, since last year, for twenty years etc.
Incorrect: I have received his letter yesterday.
Correct: I received his letter yesterday.