Some conjunctions and their uses


As a conjunction since means ‘from the past time when’.

  • Where have you been since I last saw you?
  • It is just a week since we arrived here.
  • I have never seen him since that unfortunate event happened.

The conjunction since may also mean as.

  • Since we have no money we can’t buy anything. (= As we have no money we can’t buy anything.)


The conjunction or is used to introduce an alternative.

  • Is it green or blue?
  • You can have tea or coffee.

Sometimes or is used as an equivalent to and.

  • The troops were not wanting in strength or courage, but they were badly fed. (= The troops were not wanting in strength and courage…)


The conjunction if means ‘on condition that’; ‘supposing that’.

  • If you want to go there I will take you.
  • If it rains we shall not go.

If can mean ‘when’ or ‘whenever’.

  • If I don’t wear my spectacles, I get a headache.

If is also used to express wish or surprise in the structure if only.

  • If only I had known that. (Emphasizing one’s regret that one did not know it.)


That is simply a connector. It is used to express a reason or cause.

  • His manners are so bad that nobody invites him to a party. (= Nobody invites him to a party because his manners are so bad.)
  • Bring it to the light so that I can see it better.